Principal Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs - 121

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Principal Verbs and Auxiliary Verbs.


Principal Verb = Main Verb / Primary Verb / Lexical Verb / Full Verb = A verb standing alone to give or express a full meaning.
Auxiliary Verb = Modal Verb / Helping Verb = A verb needs another verb to give or express a full meaning.

The Auxiliary Verbs are very common. They are used to form other tenses than the Simple Present and Past. They are the following: Be, Have, Shall, Should, Will, Would, May, Might, Do and Did, Can and Could.
Auxiliary Verbs can occur only before Principal Verbs.

Sometimes, some Auxiliary Verbs can also stand as Principal Verbs.

Look at the following sentences.

1. Kanishka does his work regularly, and we do ours.
2. Shashini has a new pen, and we have new pencils.
3. Kanishka does not attend class regularly, and we don’t either.
(Kanishka does not attend class regularly, and we too do not attend class regularly.)
4. Shashini has lost her new pen, and we have lost ours too.
[Shashini has lost her new pen, and we have also* lost our new pen(s).]

In sentences 1. and 2., the verbs does, do, has, and have are Principal Verbs.

In sentences 3. and 4., the verbs does, do, has, and have are Auxiliary Verbs.

Homework: Find/note/figure out/list/observe carefully, whenever/wherever Principal Verbs and/or Auxiliary Verbs are used.

Note: also* "WORD CHOICE: also, too, as well, either also, too and as well can be used in many of the same contexts : She's a valued colleague, and a great friend too OR and a great friend as well OR and also a great friend. 

also is the most formal and the most likely to be used in formal writing such as reports. as well is the most informal and the most likely to be used in speech. 

!! too is never used at the beginning of a clause. Also is not usually used at the end of a clause : Smoking makes you ill. It costs a lot too/as well OR It's also expensive OR Also, it's expensive. 

Use either when you are adding another negative fact : Our first attempt didn't work, and our second didn't either (NOT also didn't)."

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