How to Make Plurals - I - 16

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How to Make Plurals - I


The plurals of nouns are formed in various ways.

The usual way is by adding s to the singular.
E.g. : book– books, egg-eggs, eye-eyes, bicycle-bicycles ...

The plurals of nouns ending in ch, sh, ss, and x are formed by adding es to the singular.
E.g. : match - matches, brush - brushes, kiss-kisses, box - boxes ...

When a noun ends in y preceded by a vowel, the plural is formed by adding s to the singular.
E.g : boy - boys, key-keys way – ways ...

But if the final y is preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by changing y into i & adding es ...
E.g. : fly - flies, baby - babies, enemy–enemies ...

When a noun ends in o preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by adding es to the singular.
E.g. : cargo-cargoes, echo - echoes, hero-heroes, potato - potatoes.

The plural of mosquito = mosquitos or mosquitoes.

When a noun ends in o preceded by a vowel or y, the plural is formed by adding s to the singular. 
 E.g. : bamboo - bamboos, cuckoo - cuckoos, embryo - embryos ...

When a noun ends in f changing f into v & adding es or in fe changing fe into ve & adding s. 
E.g. : calf - calves, leaf-leaves, shelf - shelves, thief -thieves, wolf - wolves, scarf-scarves, knife - knives, life –lives ... [but: safe-safes.]

Some we don’t change f into v.
E.g. : chief-chiefs, dwarf-dwarfs, proof-proofs ...

Both ways: hoof-hoofs-hooves, wharf-wharfs-wharves.

Some changing the inside vowel or vowels.
E.g. : foot-feet, goose-geese, man-men, mouse-mice, tooth-teeth, woman-women.

A few nouns have old plurals ending in en or ne.
E.g. : child-children, cow-kine - (cows), ox-oxen ...

Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural. They are individual nouns which are used in a collective sense. Such as following : 

Counsel = Legal adviser or advises.

Craft = Ships of small size.

Deer, duck, fish, game = Animals which are hunted.

Issue = Child or children.

Offspring = Children.

Salmon / Salmons.

Sheep.

Shot.

Trout.

Wildfowl.

Of the above words deer, offspring, salmon, sheep, trout are not to be given the plural forms.

“Head” [Here, It is NOT “Herd”] is used with a plural sense to denote a number of cattle.

He owned three hundred head of cattle.

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