How to Make Plurals - II - 17

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How to Make Plurals II


Certain nouns of foreign origin keep their foreign plurals.
 
a) Greek.
E.g.:
 

Singular

Plural

Analysis

Analyses

Axis

Axes

Basis

Bases

Crisis

Crises

Oasis

Oases

Phenomenon 

Phenomena 

 
b) Latin.
E.g.:
 

Singular 

Plural

Genus

Genera 

Erratum 

Errata

Stratum 

Strata

Focus

Foci

Nucleus 

Nuclei

Radius

Radii

 
Some foreign words have two plurals, their own and the English forms.
E.g.:
  

Singular

Foreign

English

Bandit

Banditti

Bandits

Cherub

Cherubim

Cherubs

Fungus

Fungi

Funguses

Hippopotamus

Hippopotami

Hippopotamuses

Plateau

Plateaux

Plateaus

 
Generally, some nouns are used in the plural only.}
E.g.:
  

Aborigines 

Drawers (undergarments) 

Proceeds

Annals

Remains

Billiards

Eatables

Scissors

Braces

Measles

Shears

Breeches

Movables

Thanks

Compasses 

Pincers

Trousers

Draughts (a game)

Premises

 

  
Alms, eaves and riches are singular words used as plural.
 
Innings and news are plural words use as singular.
 
Some nouns have two plural forms with different meanings.
  

Singular

Plural one

Plural two

Brother

Brothers (of a family).

Brethren (of a community).

Fish 

Fishes (separately).

Fish (collectively).

Formula 

Formulas (forms of words).

Formulae (in mathematics).

Penny (En. Ir.)

Pennies (separate coins).

Pence (sums of money).

Shot

Shot (bullets or pellets).

Shots (discharge of a gun).

 
Many nouns and adjectives become plural nouns with meanings different from those of the singular forms.
  

Singular

Plural with different meaning

Air

Airs (affectation).

Attention

Attentions (acts of politeness).

Authority

Authorities (people in power).

Better (adjective).

Betters (people in higher position).

Colour

Colours (flag).

Copper

Coppers (copper coins).

Custom

Customs

Damage

Damages (compensation for injury) .

Force 

Forces (army).

Good 

Goods (property).

Heaven

Heavens (sky).

Instruction 

Instructions (orders).

Lodging 

Lodgings (hired rooms).

Look 

Looks (appearance of features).

Manner 

Manners (behaviour).

Pain 

Pains (trouble).

People

Peoples (nation) .

Physic

Physics (a science).

Regard

Regards (respects).

Work

Works (An industrial site).

  
Of the above words colours, customs and pains are also used as ordinary plurals, with the same meaning as the singular.

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